Section III. Questions about quotations and paraphrasing
- Which of the following most accurately describes a direct quotation?
- a. A direct quotation uses the exact words of another person and is indicated by putting those words within quotation marks and then providing an accurate citation Correct Answer
- b. A direct quotation is a pointed remark aimed toward a particular person and is indicated by putting these words within quotation marks and then providing an accurate citation Incorrect Answer
- c. A direct quotation reports the words of another person, summarizing them in simple, straightforward language Incorrect Answer
- d. A direct quotation is the best way to use sources, because the meaning of the words cannot be misrepresented Incorrect Answer
- e. A direct quotation does not need quotation marks if it is less than one sentence Incorrect Answer
The correct answer is a. A direct quotation uses the exact words of another person and is indicated by putting those words within quotation marks and then providing an accurate citation.
This matter is fairly straightforward. If you use another's exact words—whether it is a phrase or several sentences—you must place those words in quotation marks, and you must then cite the quotation. You should note that direct quotations, when taken out of context, can be quite misleading. Read more on the topic of direct quotations at: http://library.duke.edu/research/plagiarism/cite/directquote.html.
- When should you use a direct quotation?
- a. When another person’s words are unique Incorrect Answer
- b. When a paraphrase cannot capture the cited author’s precise meaning Incorrect Answer
- c. When you are making a case that the cited author said something in a specific way with specific words Incorrect Answer
- d. All of the above Correct Answer
- e. Only b and c Incorrect Answer
The correct answer is d. All of the above.
It should be obvious by now that, while you want to avoid plagiarism, excessive use of quotations is a poor strategy for effective, original writing. Quotations should be used sparingly, if at all. After all, the reader could read the book or article you cite, and skip yours altogether.
You need to use your own words and thoughts. Your manuscript should be original writing, consisting of analysis that builds upon others' work, which you must fully credit through accurate citations and not through over-quoting other people's work.
You should never simply drop in a quotation in your own text without preparing the reader with regard to the relevant identity of the person you are quoting (an authority of some sort?) and why you are quoting him.
To repeat, you need to tell the reader why you are citing the person whose work you are citing. You accomplish this task not by writing, "I'm telling you this because…", but by subtler means.
- Long direct quotations that are more than four lines are indented, not encased in quotation marks.
- a. True Correct Answer
- b. False Incorrect Answer
The correct answer is a. True.
The rule is: short verbatim statements are encased in quotation marks. Longer verbatim statements are indented, single-spaced and do not have quotation marks surrounding them.
For example, you might write: In the August 18, 2010, Wall Street Journal, Stephanie Banchero reported that less than one-fourth of high school graduates "possessed the academic skills necessary to pass entry-level courses" (A1) in college. In this example, quotation marks for the brief quotation are sufficient.
However, quoting the entire first paragraph of the article entails a different format, as shown here.
In the August, 18, 2010, Wall Street Journal, Stephanie Banchero reported:
New data show that fewer than 25% of 2010 graduates who took the ACT college-entrance exam possessed the academic skills necessary to pass entry-level courses, despite most gains in college-readiness among U.S high-school students in the last few years (A1).
To review: (A1) refers to the page number, as APA style does not use the p. abbreviation in its in-text citation style; all the other information that is otherwise needed in the citation—author and date—is already stated in your text and should not be repeated in the in-text citation in this case.)
- What is an indirect quotation or a paraphrase?
- a. A restatement of another author’s words or ideas in your own words Correct Answer
- b. A combination of two ideas in one sentence Incorrect Answer
- c. Another author’s words, used in a way that only indirectly supports your analysis Incorrect Answer
- d. A summary of theories from two different authors Incorrect Answer
The correct answer is a. A restatement of another author’s words or ideas in your own words.
Unlike a direct quotation, a paraphrase uses your own words. As a result, quotation marks are not needed; however, the ideas are not yours and must be cited. Learn more about this matter at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/577/01/.
- Which of the following accurately explains how a paraphrase should be cited?
- a. Quotation marks are not needed and the text should be indented Incorrect Answer
- b. Neither quotation marks nor attribution are necessary for properly worded paraphrases Incorrect Answer
- c. A paraphrase needs quotation marks and the text should be indented and cited Incorrect Answer
- d. As long as the majority of the words are not verbatim, quotation marks are not needed Incorrect Answer
- e. A paraphrase should be cited without quotation marks and according to a specific, consistent style. Correct Answer
The correct answer is e. A paraphrase should be cited without quotation marks and according to a specific, consistent style..
If you did not choose the correct answer, please review the other materials in this section. You should not use the words of another author without quotation marks surrounding her words even if you insert some of your own words.
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